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中西方酒店员工商管理论文答辩工跨文化交流意识之对比概述

日期:2021-10-07 17:15:57 作者: 点击次数: 所属栏目:工商管理论文

  CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION函授。

  1.1 Backround大专 Study and Thesis。

  Objectives China is an important market for the tourism industry.电大 The economic boom experienced inChina in the past years,某企业的分析,a mix between modem cities and natural sights开题,某企业的分析,as well as a long andrich history makes this country one of the most popular touristic电大 destinations,企业以企业为例,according选题 tothe World Bank and the United Nations World Tourism Organization,某企业的分析,China is currentlyranked as the third most popular country for touris文献m.Hotel industry has been growing year by year,企业以企业为例,the investment and construction of both localand international课题 hotels,某企业的分析,combined with the development and establishment of new tradingzones本科 in the cities,企业以企业为例,has increased the competition of hotels eager to attract more guests and atthe same time pushing forward the need to improve目录 the quality of service for customers.The recent visa-free policy implemented in the cities such as Beijing,企业以企业为例,Shanghai摘要,and选题 Dalian toenlist some,企业以企业为例,allows transit tourist from over 45 countries to stay in one of the participantcities for up to 72 hours without a visa as an effort to bring more transit pa范围ssengers into thecities,某企业的分析,this measure already brought positive大专 results on bringing more tourists,企业以企业为例,according toWang Zhenghua from chinadaly.com.cn since the implementation of the policy in January toSeptember方向 pt 2013,某企业的分析,in Shanghai答辩 only,about题目 8,300 transit自考 foreigners stayed in the city,企业以企业为例,stillthis附录 measure requires of more promotion in order to attract more attention as well as theparticipation of other cities,企业以企业为例,particularly the ones with heavy air traffic文献 and connecting flights,某企业的分析,but is already showing positive results on bringing transit passengers to use China as alayover destination and therefore to generate revenue for the touristic spots of the cities范围 andtourism related business。

  1.2 Literature Review提纲。

  CCC studies have been part of areas such企业 as anthropology,企业以企业为例,sociology大学,communicationsciences发表,企业以企业为例,international relations and psychology翻译 Proser,某企业的分析,2012开题,without any major study togain international recognition until the beginning of the seventies with Geert Hofstede'smodel of national开题 cultural differences Huijser,某企业的分析,et al大全,2002 and by his later publication of thecultural dimensions theory in 1984.Early cross-cultural目录 studies placed more importance in the differences between American andJapanese cultures,某企业的分析,as well as comparisons between American with other European countriesand members of the former Soviet Union提纲 Proser,企业以企业为例,2012. Nowadays especially because theeconomic and industrial development of China after the reforms and opening to the worldbetween 1980 a答辩nd 1984 Wei 1995 more studies have been conducted between thecontrasting aspects of culture between western nations and China Proser,企业以企业为例,2012William B. Gudykunst as cited by Proser 2012 identified both intercultural communicationand CCC as areas of interaction between groups of different cultural backgrounds. Sinceculture can be viewed as a living and课题 dynamic entity,某企业的分析,the cultural attributes and elements of acountry摘要 will be in constant change Gummesson,企业以企业为例,2006.文献 Part of this change can be recognizedon the way a culture accepts and adapts elanents from others,某企业的分析,this目录 continuous change can beclearly recognized in the case of China where the influence of Western cultures has modifiedvalues and customs of certain groups of the population Chung,某企业的分析,2008范文,examples likeincorporating自考 western menus and eating habits,某企业的分析,products' brand函授 selection to other areas suchas the desire to study abroad or adopt western holidays and ideals can be seen more often。

  ...........格式。

  

  CHAPTER 2. THEORETICAL范文 BACKGROUND。

  2.1 Cross-Cultural翻译 Communication。

  Concepts and Theories Communication函授,某企业的分析,as defined大学 by the International Encyclopedia of Hospitality Management2010,企业以企业为例,is the ‘exchange of选题 information and understanding,某企业的分析,' it is from this that we can inferthat communication with others翻译 is not only about transmitting some message or information,企业以企业为例,but a social event where people involved process a翻译nd interpret the information according towhat their need and the interest they have from participating in the exchange.Cross-cultural communication CCC ‘involves comparisons of communication acrosscultures' Gudykunst,企业以企业为例,2003. CCC is any type of interaction between people of differentcultural backgrounds; as a result knowledge of both language and culture will be crucial forthe quality and efficiency of the communication process.Studies of CCC started when governments and business were interested to switch betweenindividual-country capitalism to a global capitalism structure and expanding internationallyEverett et函授 al.,企业以企业为例,2002; those companies started选题 to offer language training courses to theiremployees,某企业的分析,culture-general大全 information and dimensions,企业以企业为例,as well as guidelines on how toimprove communication范围 among people from different backgrounds.。

  2.2 Cross-Cultural Management本科。

  With the increase翻译 of international tourism,某企业的分析,employees of hospitality答辩 business are in constantlyexposure with guests from different cultures and backgrounds,某企业的分析,as noted by文献 Pondent,cross-cultural management CCM offers techniques大学 that will help the personnel to handlethose differences and generate positive outcomes for all the parties involved.Globalization is continuously changing the composition of the work force,某企业的分析,their behavior andthe dynamics they experience方向 in their work locations Dong and Liu,企业以企业为例,2010课题,CCM is a systemthat concerns with the interactions between文献 different cultures within a business environment.CCM techniques focus primarily on the employees,企业以企业为例,to understand their different values whenworking with people coming from different cultures and to train them about the differences附录 incultures,某企业的分析,expectations and preferences函授 of consumers. In addition,企业以企业为例,CCM also uses方向 Hofstede'scultural dimension theory Gannon and Newman,企业以企业为例,2002 to have more sensitive approaches tothe management of employees开题 and enhance the understanding,企业以企业为例,cooperation and interactionsbetween the workers in a company.Research by Tjosvold and Leung 2003 proposed自考 a typology of CCM embedded in threedifferent contexts that describe the interactions among the organization,企业以企业为例,location and theinternational选题 environment.The first context,某企业的分析,Organization-Specific大全,focuses on th大全e characteristics of the organizationand its members,某企业的分析,as well as the processes involved in the work 自考environment and theorganizational area. The Location-Specific researches the institution and cultural environmentin a determined location and how that location influences the functioning of the organization.Finally,某企业的分析,International-Environment Related focuses on the nature of both international and global environment that affect how the company本科 functions in an international context duringa certain point in time or during a period of time。

  CHAPTER 3. EMPLOYEES' AWARENESS AND QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN........怎么 26。

  3.1 Awareness of Employees下载 of the Hospitality Industry about Cross-culturalCommunication,某企业的分析,General Perspectives .....26格式。

  3.2 Methodology提纲 and Questionnaire Design ........29 CHAPTER 4. RESULTS ANALYSIS .................31。

  4.1 General Information about the Questionnaires Collected文献 .............31。

  4.2 Comparative Results Analysis 32选题。

  4.2.2Work Experience and发表 Training   ............38。

  CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER提纲 STUDY ..........58。

  5.1 Summary of Findings下载 ............58。

  5.2 Conclusion文献  ............60。

  5.3 Suggestions for Further Study................61电大。

  CHAPTER 4. RESULTS本科 ANALYSIS。

  4.1 Genral Information本科 about the Questionnaires。

  Collected The survey was done within 2 groups of respondents电大,企业以企业为例,both groups being发表 currently employedin hotel companies,企业以企业为例,Chinese and employees from various Western countries. Replies fromboth groups allowed us to obtain and analyze the awareness on CCC between both groups.The results obtained from both versions of questionnaires help us to gain a broaderperspective about not only the constitution课题 of hotel's work force,某企业的分析,but also the priorities oftheir employees and t下载he importance they place in the skills they need in order to perform theirjobs,某企业的分析,the resources facilitated by their employers and most important about tiieir generalinterest and reactions when facing CCC situations in different cultures and countries. These 3 different types of reactions were found in employees from different positions whowere working in the same hotel. This indicates a lack格式 of coherence from the staff,企业以企业为例,when someemployees answer the survey without problem大专 and others reflised to do so using one of thetwo negative responses mentioned above. Also,企业以企业为例,some发表 of the employees approached wereusing their phones at the time when responding they couldn't answer the survey due to beingon work hours,某企业的分析,again showing l大专ack of coherence and at the same time a lack of interest toparticipate in the survey,企业以企业为例,not giving a direct negative to responding the questionnaire大纲 andusing work or management as an excuse.。

  4.2 Comparative Results电大。

  Analysis大学 As indicated on the bar chart,企业以企业为例,怎么in the Chinese survey is observed the predominance of younglabor force,某企业的分析,with the majority提纲 of employees in the 18-25 age gap and then progressivelydecreasing as the age group moves up. Meanwhile in the English survey it is observed a morebalance in the age groups between 18-25 and 26-35 years of the respondents,企业以企业为例,having本科 a highernumber in the 26-35 age category,企业以企业为例,even when the numbers选题 of respondents also decrease asthe age goes up,企业以企业为例,the numbers are significantly英文 higher than in the Chinese version. We canreflect that the largest age group of hotel employees who participated in the surveys,某企业的分析,in bothEnglish and Chin英文ese version,企业以企业为例,is on majority大专 younger than 36 years old. Due to nationality of aur Mexican and in order to collect the surveys from the Westernhotel employees,企业以企业为例,contacts from previous work experience in the hotel industry were used andsurveys were answered by employees of 9 different countries. The writer of this paperworked in United States of America as hotel employee; therefore both numbers Mexico andUSA respondents were企业 higher. During the work experience in the field,某企业的分析,the author hadco-workers coming from different countries and they were contacted through Internet andrequested to fill out the questionnaires方向,某企业的分析,as well as using the snowball发表 technique for surveys,某企业的分析,were asked to forward the questionnaires to 2 or more co-workers in their respectivecountries.大学 As mentioned previously,企业以企业为例,a limitation大纲 of this survey has also to do with the location of theauthor Liaoning,企业以企业为例,Dalian大学,the surveys摘要 were conducted in five different hotels in downtownDalian,某企业的分析,therefore the biggest majority on the prov格式ince of origin of the hotel employees in thecity belong to the Liaoning province,企业以企业为例,with smaller大全 numbers on Jilin and Heilongjiangprovinces,企业以企业为例,which are in close proximity文献 to Liaoning,企业以企业为例,being all part of the Northe选题ast region ofChina.。

  .............电大。

  CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS开题 AND SUGGESTIONS FORFURTHERSTUDY。

  5.1 Summary of Findings大专。

  Findings格式 of the study indicated that hotel's staff is formed by a young and diverse work-force,某企业的分析,the majority of them holding a bachelors degree diploma企业,企业以企业为例,in the case of Chinese employeeshaving proficiency in one foreign language and for Western participants in one or moreforeign languages.From the information provided电大 by the hotel employees in both participant groups it showedthat people working in the accommodation industry,某企业的分析,particularly in the范围 case of Chineserespondents,企业以企业为例,work in the industry for 5 years答辩 or less,某企业的分析,even when the majority of participantsfrom both groups indicated their interest in pursuing怎么 a career in hospitality,企业以企业为例,the fact that notmany of those employees reached experience on the field of more开题 than 5 years reflect thechanging work environment and that employee retention is not always possible,企业以企业为例,differentreasons大纲 for this can include the same fact that employees are young so they don't have longwork experience in the area and prefer to look for other work opportunities,企业以企业为例,lack ofmotivation in the附录 work environment,某企业的分析,working times and范文 schedule,某企业的分析,inconformity英文 with salaries,某企业的分析,or because personal choices.Training自考 is an essential part for hotel employees before they start to work in the company,某企业的分析,itgives them not only a better idea about 答辩the job they need to perform but also help them to getmore familiarized with the whole environment. The length of the initial training employeeshave to undergo through in both groups was found to last between 1 to 2 days,某企业的分析,especially格式 forthe Chinese respondents,企业以企业为例,while for the participants in the English自考 survey indicated longertraining sessions,某企业的分析,this facilitated to cover more training topics than for their范文 Chinesecounterparts.。

  5.2 Conclusions格式。

  Hotel companies who strive to attract international目录 guests should invest in proper trainingprograms for all their front-line employees,某企业的分析,clearly自考 setting service quality standards,某企业的分析,as wellas making the training flexible allowing employees to范文 attend even with their different workschedules. Training can't be only limited to before an employee starts to work,企业以企业为例,but alsoshould offer continuous training发表 options for the staff,企业以企业为例,both in the format of formal training aswell as in resources available permanently文献 for the employees. CCTr programs should be tailored to meet the demands of each position,企业以企业为例,covering题目 the mosttypical cross-cultural difficulties employees can face depending on their work position,企业以企业为例,oneexample can be about food customs from cultures of the most common guests to visit thehotel for food and beverage大学 employees,企业以企业为例,or most common problems发表 and information requiredfrom guest when checking-in for front desk employees,某企业的分析,to mention a couple电大 of examples。

  ................文献。

  范围参考文献略。