博爱论文网专业的论文帮忙写作网站,详细介绍论文写作价格及哪里找靠谱代笔网站等问题!
您当前的位置: 博爱学术 > 论文范文 > 管理学论文 > 工商管理论文 > 企业工商管理论文城市化管理对加纳人口生活水平的影响

企业工商管理论文城市化管理对加纳人口生活水平的影响

日期:2021-10-07 17:13:08 作者: 点击次数: 所属栏目:工商管理论文

  Chapter 1 Introduction电大。

  

  1.1函授 Background,Objective and Significance of the大纲 Study。

  The world is increasingly becoming urbanized with怎么 about half of theworld‘s population already living in urban areas. Thomas,企业以企业为例,2008; Olujimi大学 2009;Satterthwaite et al,企业以企业为例,2010附录[1,3].The driving forces behind the rapid urbanization in Africa today are选题 thetwin processes of rural-urban migration and natural increase within towns andcities Songsore,某企业的分析,2009; Thuo格式,2010选题[4,5].By birth or through rural-urban范围 migration,某企业的分析,the poor of the world大学 areincreasingly concentrating in cities,某企业的分析,both large and范围 small. It is expected that verysoon the majority of mankind will live in cities. By definition,企业以企业为例,cities are spatialconcentrations开题 of people and their economic and social activities,企业以企业为例,other thanprimarily agricultural. They are therefore both a concentration of poverty andwea怎么lth,企业以企业为例,and problems as well as solutions. Urbanization takes place in the wholeworld附录,企业以企业为例,in poor and affluent选题 regions alike. But in the poorer ones,某企业的分析,urban growth isthe strongest大学,企业以企业为例,nearly half of it caused by migration of poor peasants to the开题 cities.By definition,企业以企业为例,urbanization大全 is the growth in the proportion of a country'spopulation living in urban areas Thomas,企业以企业为例,2008.The urban population may also be自考 thought of more as nonagricultural thanurban in the way those in industrialized countries would naturally tend toperceive it. United Nations statistics division 2007 demographic yearbookIn 1950,某企业的分析,about 30 of大全 the worlds’ population lived in cities and is projectedto rise to 61 by 2030 Trzyna,某企业的分析,2007[6]. The current statistics seem to suggestthat almost every country开题 in the world has experienced some form ofurbanization,某企业的分析,and the process is proceeding unabated专科,某企业的分析,especially in Africa.Rakodi附录,企业以企业为例,1997 cited in Thuo文献,2010 argued that it is almost a truism开题 that theplanet’s future is an urban one,企业以企业为例,and that大全,the largest and fastest growing cities areprimarily in developing countries.格式 This statement is proven more accurate,企业以企业为例,particularly in Africa looking at the alarming rate of urban growth方向[7].。

  .........选题。

  

  1.2 Literature Review模板。

  Differing opinions选题 have been expressed about the process of urb anization inAfrica,某企业的分析,many people are of the view that rapid urban growth下载 in Africa is often inconjunction with inadequate governance systems,企业以企业为例,infrastructure development格式,企业以企业为例,environmental degradation and land发表 administration and most often,企业以企业为例,lack ofindustrial and economic growth which have led to what is often called theAfrican urban大专 crisis Yankson,企业以企业为例,2006; Rakodi选题,2005附录 cited in Mandere et al,企业以企业为例,2010.Satterthwaite et al 2010自考 however argued that it is the cause of such problemsbut the inadequacies in the response of governments and international agencies[19,企业以企业为例,20]. Osmanu et大纲 al 2010 attributed these challenges to the failure ofgovernments to deliver infrastructure services necessary for providing adequateliving standards[21].Urbanization is the name for the movement of people from rural to urbanareas,企业以企业为例,and the resulting growth of cities. Urbanization函授 is a process that hasoccurred,某企业的分析,or is附录 occurring,in nearly every part of the world that humans haveinhabited.The word urban was发表 derived from the Latin word urbanus meaningcharacteristic of or pertaining to,企业以企业为例,the city大全 Macionis and Parrillo,企业以企业为例,2007目录[22]. Thisgoes on to explain or define urbanization as the shift from a rural to an urbansociety,企业以企业为例,and involves an increase方向 in the number of people in urban ar eas during aparticular year. Nsiah-Gyabaah,企业以企业为例,2003[23]. He further argues that urbanization下载 isthe outcome of the social,企业以企业为例,economic and political developments附录 that lead tourban concentration and growth of large cities,企业以企业为例,changes in land use andtransformation from rural to metropolitan pattern of范文 organization andgovernment. In effect,企业以企业为例,urbanization affects all aspects of life both in the rural andurban范围 setting Addo-Fordwuor,某企业的分析,2014翻译[24].。

  .........选题。

  

  Chapter 2开题 Theoretical Foundation。

  

  2.1 Sustainable Development方向 Theories。

  In previous chapter函授,the topic under study was introduced; relevant literaturewas reviewed and vividly discussed. This chapter hopes to examine relevantsustainable development theories that relate to the urbanization and livingstandards. Sustainable development here refers to a development process摘要 whichdoes not impact adversely on the environment and which takes into account theneeds of the present generation as well as the future generations.Accra,企业以企业为例,one of the most rapidly growing cities in Sub-Saharan模板 Africa,企业以企业为例,hasexperienced the phenomenon of urbanization as thoroughly as any African nationcity企业,企业以企业为例,but its experience has文献 also been unique - in scale,某企业的分析,in pervasiveness企业,and inhistorical antecedents.Modern urbanization in most African countries has been dominated by thegrowth电大 of a single primate city,企业以企业为例,the political and commercial center of the方向 nation;its emergence was,某企业的分析,more怎么 often than not,linked to the shaping of the countryduring the colonial课题 era. In countries with a coastline,企业以企业为例,this was often a coastal port本科,某企业的分析,and in专科 Ghana,Accra fitted well开题 into this pattern. Unlike most other nations,企业以企业为例,however格式,Ghana had not怎么 just one or two but several other cities of major size andimportance,某企业的分析,a number of which were larger than most other national capitals inAfrica.Cities are not目录 only independent centers of concentrated human populationand activity; they also exert a potent influence on the rural landscapeMabogunje 1968. What are distinctive about the growth of cities in Ghana arethe length of its historical extension and the geographic pervasiveness of itscoverage. This chapter will look at three main theories,某企业的分析,The摘要 SustainableLivelihood Approach of the DFID,某企业的分析,The Impacts of Urbanization提纲 and CopingStrategies and also the National Urban Policy Framework of the Republic ofGhana.。

  .........大纲。

  

  2.2专科 Sustainable Livelihood Approach。

  Any social research needs to be guided by a theoretical or conceptualframework. This will serve as a touch light with which the study will be lookedat or situated within. This research will look at three important theories related tothis study. .All theories will be explained in perspective and elaborated on.Many attempts have been made to establish a couple of theories that help indefining and explaining the concept of urbanization and how it affects standardsof附录 living of the urban population. One school of thought came up with theSustainable Livelihood Approach in trying to explain and solve the problemurbanization brings about. This theory looks at urbanization from a couple ofperspectives,企业以企业为例,some of which摘要 will be discussed in this chapter.In recent years,企业以企业为例,the concept of livelihood has gained widespread popularity课题,企业以企业为例,ranging from agencies of development to development analysts.This study will be guided by the s英文ustainable livelihood framework by theBritish Department for International Development DFID. This framework hasbeen adapted and adopted for the purpose of this research. The concept of‘sustainable livelihoods’ constitute the basis of different development agencies ofwhich includes the DFID. The DFID,某企业的分析,has developed a sustainable格式 livelihoodframework which is one of the most widely used livelihood framewo rks fordevelopment practice.GLOPP,企业以企业为例,2008[40]. The concept of ‘sustainable livelihoods’constitute the basis文献 of different ‘sustainable livelihoods approaches’ SLF andhas been adapted by different agencies including the DFID. The DFID hasdeveloped a ‘sustainable livelihood framework’ SLF which is one of the mostwidely used livelihood frameworks in development practice. The DFID,企业以企业为例,ssustainable livelihood approach was developed in 1999 and has since beenadopted and电大 modified by a number of development agencies such as CARE,企业以企业为例,UNDP among others. For the purpose of this research专科 work,企业以企业为例,the大学 DFID,ssustainable livelihood framework has been答辩 adopted,企业以企业为例,modified答辩 and used as a keypoint of reference.。

  ...........题目。

  

  CHAPTER 3 A CASE STUDY OF MADINA IN ACCRA......... 3自考8。

  3.1发表 Research Design ............ 38。

  3.2 Types开题 and Sources of Data ....... 39。

  3.3 Population发表,Sample Size And Sampling下载 Technique .......... 39。

  3.4 Methodology摘要 ....... 40。

  3.5专科 Chapter Summary .......... 41。

  CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS FROM SURVEY..... 4大学2。

  4.1 Presentation of Respondents范围 Demographic Profile .......... 42。

  4.2 Enthusiasms for Moving to the city.电大 ............ 47。

  4.3 Opportunities for Employment and Education .......开题 49。

  4.4 Social范文 Interventions Assimilation ...... 51。

  4.5专科 Chapter Summary .......... 54。

  CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS AND摘要 SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH ........ 55。

  5.1发表 Summary of the Study ............. 55。

  5.2 Major大全 findings of Study........... 57。

  5.3 Limitations专科 of the Study .......... 62。

  5.4 Recommendations..........大专 63。

  5.5 Chapter Summary专科 .......... 64。

  

  Chapter 5 Findings And Summary范文 of the Research。

  

  5.1 Summary of下载 the Study。

  Although urbanization本科 is not a new phenomenon in Ghana,企业以企业为例,the recent risein the numbers and the resulting pressure on resources such as housing andemployment has led to a largely negative policy position答辩 of government,企业以企业为例,metropolitan发表 and municipal authorities on rural-urban migration and thedevelopment of slums in Ghana. Urbanization is typically seen as puttingmuch pressure on urban infrastructure,某企业的分析,environment and employment and therehas been an underlying assumption that this is linked to urban poverty.It is therefore a widely held belief that urbanization cannot目录 lead to anypositive impacts for migrants,企业以企业为例,their families or the areas from which theymigrated from or are currently settled. Urbanization is characterized by poorlypaid jobs in the informal sector of the city’s economy where most of thesemigrants seek employment. Many of these migrants are not able to make endsmeet not to talk about affording the decent accommodation due to the high rateof rent of decent accommodation in the city. Renting decent accommodationis characterized by the practice whereby landlords demand at least 2 -3 years ofadvance payment of rent which many of these migrants are not able to afford.This practice though is illegal; it is a wide phenomenon due to the highdemand for housing against a sluggish housing supply in the city of Accra.Poor migrants who are unable to afford the high rent end up settling怎么 in poorlyplanned,企业以企业为例,overcrowded怎么 and ecologically sensitive areas in the capital.。

  .........函授。

  

  conclusion目录。

  

  In the course大学 of this research,某企业的分析,it was realized that the issue of urban povertyhas been on the ascendency. Most people who migrated to the city with the soleaim of improving their livelihoods大纲 rather got worse by day as it became evendifficult making ends meet.All the respondents opined that people are still moving and some othersare willing to move into Accra and majority of the respondents also noted that more people move into Accra than before. Furthermore,企业以企业为例,majority of therespondents noted that urbanization提纲 exact great impacts on environmentalconditions and environmental sanitation.Lastly,企业以企业为例,on the effect函授 of urbanization on income earners,某企业的分析,it was found thaturbanization impacts significantly on low and middle income ea附录rners but lesson high income earners.In conclusion,企业以企业为例,this research方向 discovered that,某企业的分析,much effort has always beenput on the negative impacts urbanization文献 poses forgetting that if structures andInstitutions are handled well,某企业的分析,urbanization could be a growth engine for theentire nation. But until efforts are taken by government and the private sectorto improve and develop living电大 situations in urban centres,企业以企业为例,the worl d at largewill always view urbanization摘要 based on its negative effects. Rural areas shouldalso be developed to meet the standard of urban areas to decrease the pressureof rural people migrating to the urban centers daily. If this is than,某企业的分析,rural peoplewill learn to live in their communities and also find sustainable ways of livingand自考 this goes to develop the entire nation.。

  ..........格式。

  References abbreviated目录。